For parents who invest in independent education, helping their children make the right choice - if there is a right choice - is a daunting task. For many, sending kids to independent school is a commitment to giving them the best start, so finding the right fit, be it a co-ed or single-sex classroom, is key. But the only thing as complicated as boys and girls trying to figure each other out, is figuring out whether or not they want to attend school together. Given gender stereotypes and differences between the sexes, the question has yet to be settled: Do girls and boys learn better together or separately?
Co-ed enthusiasts explain that their environment better reflects the real world and, if done right, can offer a balance. Sarah McMahon, admissions director at Lakefield College School, about one hour northeast of Toronto, Ontario stresses that, while "it's an individual decision," she's a fan of the co-ed approach.
"This is the reality of the world. You're going to be in an environment that's both male and female, and I think it's a healthy environment to grow up in," she explains.
"The camaraderie that develops between the boys and girls is very special. In a single-sex school, you miss out on that."
Until 12 years ago, Lakefield was boys-only, but is now co-ed. Grade 11 student Kelly Bignell has been there since Grade 7, and some of her best friends are boys. "I can talk to my guy friends about anything," she says. "I cherish the friendships I've made here."
David Robertson, headmaster at Shawnigan Lake School, a coed boarding high school in BC, says boys and girls ultimately have a more enriching educational experience when they get to learn together. "There's a cross-pollination that goes on in the academic environment," Robertson says. "The diligence and attentiveness of girls positively affects boys, while the liveliness of boys inspires girls. They learn from and are inspired by each other."
Coed schools better prepare girls and boys for post-secondary school and employment by providing ongoing opportunities to work together, he adds. "They learn to work together productively, which is what they will be expected to do throughout their life. So there is good preparation happening for university and beyond."
Since co-education is the norm in North American public schools, most of the research in the field has focused on the efficacy of single-sex education. Single-Sex Education: What Does Research Tell Us?, a 2010 review of several studies on single-sex education in English-speaking countries, found little consensus on whether the option is actually advantageous to girls' and boys' academic achievement.
Additional research shows boys and girls have unique requirements if they're to reach their full potential. Supporters of the single-sex model say that, because studies show boys and girls learn differently, they should be in a school that caters to those needs and single-sex schools consider these differences to create customized programs that optimize success.
"Girls and boys really do learn differently," says Dona Matthews, an author and education psychologist at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education in Toronto. "Girls are more likely than boys to want to learn co-operatively and collaboratively. Boys tend to be more competitive and to get something good from being competitive."
"In coed schools, boys tend to populate the lower end of the academic spectrum," says Brad Adams, executive director of the International Boys' Schools Coalition. "Boys' schools specialize in designing curriculum that hooks boys into learning."
At boys' schools, boys are more engaged in learning without being in a gender pressure cooker, Adams adds.
"They have a longer time to be boys and to explore various interests, for example, in the arts, without getting straitjacketed into some stereotypical gender role, such as the jock," he explains.
The main strength of all-boys and all-girls schools is reflected in the 2008 study Single-Sex Schooling and Academic Attainment at School and Through the Lifecourse. The study found that the option helps students succeed in gender-atypical subjects; for example, girls will perform better in math and science, and boys will do better in English and modern languages.
For girls, much of the benefit lies in developing their personhood in an environment free of persistent traditional gender stereotypes that can hold women back.
"In many ways, gender dynamics have not changed, and in most of the world, public life is still the domain of men, and domestic life that of women," says Burch Ford, president of the U.S.-based National Coalition of Girls' Schools (NCGS). "Girls' schools provide not only a physical but a psychological space where that part of our culture is left at the door, and girls have the freedom to explore who they are and who they want to become.”
Girls who attend single-sex schools outscore their coed counterparts on the SAT by an average of 28 to 43 points, and nearly 100 percent of girls' school graduates go on to college, according to the NCGS.
"In girls' schools, there is no social consequence for speaking out, challenging ideas and being yourself, which allows girls to develop the kind of critical- and creative-thinking skills that are essential in the 21st-century workforce," Ford says.
Eleanor Moore, of The Linden School for girls in Toronto, says people ask a lot of the co-ed classroom because "it's hard to be all things to all people."
Until recently, much of the research highlighted the challenges faced by girls. Many felt intimidated during adolescence; not only were their voices being lost in the co-ed classroom, they were missing out on developing leadership, math, science and technology skills. The focus has shifted, however, to how co-ed classrooms are failing boys.
Statistics released by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development in 2001 showed girls significantly outscored boys in reading in all 32 countries tested. In Canada, boys lagged more than 30 points behind girls.
And, with Ontario's province-wide tests also showing that boys are suffering, many parents are looking for options that will focus on their sons' needs.
Traditional classrooms are more female-friendly, says Peter Jackson, administrator at Saint John's School of Alberta, a boys-only facility outside Edmonton, Alberta. Boys aren't programmed to sit quietly for long periods and focus on one task. They're easily distracted, they're loud and, especially in early adolescence, "they're brimming over with energy- - if you could harness it, you could power a city," he says.
"Boys are having a much harder time," acknowledges Matthews, who, in her private psychology practice, sees a lot of smart little boys who are identified as having behaviour problems, when really they're just curious children.
As a result, Saint John's structures its schedule to respond to boys' needs. "We have smaller classes and we're able to work out that energy," Jackson says. "The day is broken so they're not just sitting at a desk." Instead, they're doing chores, playing sports and participating in the school's Outdoor Adventure Program, which includes expeditions to explore Canada's geography and history.
At Linden, a women-centred approach focuses on women's stories and takes into account girls' personalities. "We know that girls are very much socially and psychologically rooted in relationships." Moore says. "If girls view relationships as key, then it's important in teaching."
Arranging the the Linden science lab in an hour-glass shape encourages discussions, and students also call teachers by their first names, treating them as guides, or comrades, rather than all-knowing beings. This holistic approach allows girls to take responsibility for their education and develop independence.
It also puts the focus on academics, says Moore, who, like Jackson, believes students are less distracted in a single-sex school.
"I think for the most part they're much freer in nature," she explains."They don't have to put being cool before learning."
Kimberley Noble says she's relieved her 13-year-old daughter Lucy doesn't have to deal with the peer pressure of the co-ed classroom, where some girls are pushed to grow up too soon or act a certain way to impress boys.
"I would much rather Lucy go out into the world of relationships as a really strong fully formed person and I think that's what she's getting where she is," says Noble. "The all-girls environment gives them a lot of freedom to look at who they are and what they want to be in the world."
While single-sex classrooms do help girls maintain confidence and keep their options open when it comes to careers and academics, says Matthews, separating the girls from the boys isn't the only answer. "When there's been qualitative study done of single-sex environments in which girls are shown to do better, and when people learn about what's going on there and apply that to co-ed environments, you get even better things going on.
"Rather than segregate, it's always better to figure out how to diversify the classroom," she suggests.
Kelly Bignell agrees, emphasizing that she enjoys the well-rounded experience her co-ed school offers: "I think you get so many more different views, especially in a classroom discussion."
While the single-sex/co-ed question raises plenty of issues for parents and students to consider, no one answer is right or wrong. "It's very much an individual differences phenomenon," Matthews says. "For some girls and some boys the single-sex environment is absolutely right, for some it's absolutely wrong."
According to the experts, up to 80 percent of boys and 80 percent of girls have brains similar enough that they will respond to the same learning style. But what about the 20 percent that differs?
As a parent, you probably have a gut feeling that your little girl or boy doesn’t quite fit the mould. Test those instincts against the following questions, informed by the observations of teacher Tom Stevens (who has taught both sexes):
DOES YOUR CHILD WORK BEST COLLABORATIVELY, OR DOES HE LIKE TO COMPETE? Girls tend to learn best when there is co-operation; boys like to be pitted against each other.
IS YOUR CHILD A BORN READER OR DOES SHE GRAVITATE MORE TO PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES? Generally, boys need encouragement to sit quietly with a book.
DOES YOUR CHILD LEARN BEST BY HEARING OR SEEING OR BY DOING? While girls tend to learn from a spoken lesson, boys seem to be more experiential.
DOES YOUR CHILD SHOW AFFECTION BY CUDDLING OR BY PLAY-FIGHTING? Teachers like Stevens observe that while most girls hug and kiss, boys prefer roughhousing.
CAN YOUR CHILD FOLLOW COMPLEX INSTRUCTIONS OR DO YOU NEED TO SPELL THEM OUT ONE AT A TIME? Most girls are better at multi-tasking.
IS YOUR CHILD AN ENGAGED LISTENER OR DO YOU HAVE TO REPEAT YOURSELF? Boys tend to have shorter attention spans.
— Liza Finlay
ALL GIRLS: Single-Sex Education and Why It Matters by Karen Stabiner (Riverhead Books)
BOYS AND GIRLS LEARN DIFFERENTLY: A Guide for Teachers and Parents by Michael Gurian (Wiley)
BOYS THEMSELVES: A Return to Single Sex Education by Michael Ruhlman (Henry Holt)
FAILING AT FAIRNESS: How Our Schools Cheat Girls by Myra Sadker and David Sadker (Touchstone Books)
SEPARATE SEXES, SEPARATE SCHOOLS: A Pro/Con Issue by Barbara C. Cruz (Enslow Publishers)
Parents interested in the latest info on the advantages of co-ed schools can go right to our portal on coed schools.
Our kids also features comprehensive lists of all boys schools and all girls schools.
www.singlesexschools.org The National Association for Single Sex Public Education chronicles a variety of studies promoting single-sex classrooms. It also documents how boys' and girls' brains develop differently, leading to their unique needs in the classroom.
www.acer.edu.au Two years ago, the Australian Council for Education Research released the study "Boys in School and Society."
www.donamatthews.com Dona Matthews is an author and education psychologist at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education in Toronto. View her essays on education at this site.